What are SQL Azure firewall rules?

What are SQL Azure firewall rules?

Asked on November 13, 2018 in Database.
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  • 4 Answer(s)

    Firewall and firewall rules:

    • Microsoft Azure SQL Database provides a relational database service for Azure and other Internet-based applications.
    • To help protect your data, firewalls prevent all access to your database server until you specify which computers have permission.
    • The firewall grants access to databases based on the originating IP address of each request.
    • The Azure SQL Database service is only available through TCP port 1433.
    • To access a SQL Database from your computer, ensure that your client computer firewall allows outgoing TCP communication on TCP port 1433.
    • If not needed for other applications, block inbound connections on TCP port 1433.
    • As part of the connection process, connections from Azure virtual machines are redirected to a different IP address and port, unique for each worker role.

    SQL Authentication

    • Which uses a username and password. When you created the logical server for your database, you specified a “server admin” login with a username and password.
    • Using these credentials, you can authenticate to any database on that server as the database owner, or “dbo.”

    Azure Active Directory Authentication

    • Which uses identities managed by Azure Active Directory and is supported for managed and integrated domains.

    Authorization:

    • Authorization refers to what a user can do within an Azure SQL Database, and this is controlled by your user account’s database role memberships and object-level permissions. As a best practice, you should grant users the least privileges necessary. The server admin account you are connecting with is a member of db owner, which has authority to do anything within the database. Save this account for deploying schema upgrades and other management operations.
    • Use the “Application User” account with more limited permissions to connect from your application to the database with the least privileges needed by your application.
    • Typically, only administrators need access to the master database. Routine access to each user database should be through non-administrator contained database users created in each database. When you use contained database users, you do not need to create logins in the master database.
    • You should familiarize yourself with the following features that can be used to limit or elevate permissions.
    • Impersonation and module-signing can be used to securely elevate permissions temporarily.
    • Row-Level Security can be used limit which rows a user can access.
    • Data Masking can be used to limit exposure of sensitive data.
    • Stored procedures can be used to limit the actions that can be taken on the database.
    Answered on November 13, 2018.
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    o provide security, Azure SQL Database and SQL Data Warehouse control access with firewall rules limiting connectivity by IP address, authentication mechanisms requiring users to prove their identity, and authorization mechanisms limiting users to specific actions and data

    FIREWALL:

    Microsoft Azure SQL Database provides a relational database service for Azure and other Internet-based applications. To help protect your data, firewalls prevent all access to your database server until you specify which computers have permission. The firewall grants access to databases based on the originating IP address of each request. For more information, see Overview of Azure SQL Database firewall rules

    The Azure SQL Database service is only available through TCP port 1433. To access a SQL Database from your computer, ensure that your client computer firewall allows outgoing TCP communication on TCP port 1433. If not needed for other applications, block inbound connections on TCP port 1433.

    As part of the connection process, connections from Azure virtual machines are redirected to a different IP address and port, unique for each worker role. The port number is in the range from 11000 to 11999. For more information about TCP ports, see Ports beyond 1433 for ADO.NET 4.5 and SQL Database2.

    Answered on January 14, 2019.
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    Microsoft Azure SQL Database and SQL Data Warehouse provide a relational database service for Azure and other Internet-based applications. To help protect your data, firewalls prevent all access to your database server until you specify which computers have permission. The firewall grants access to databases based on the originating IP address of each request.

    • Server-level firewall rules:

      These rules enable clients to access your entire Azure SQL server, that is, all the databases within the same logical server. These rules are stored in the master database. Server-level firewall rules can be configured by using the portal or by using Transact-SQL statements. To create server-level firewall rules using the Azure portal or PowerShell, you must be the subscription owner or a subscription contributor. To create a server-level firewall rule using Transact-SQL, you must connect to the SQL Database instance as the server-level principal login or the Azure Active Directory administrator (which means that a server-level firewall rule must first be created by a user with Azure-level permissions).

    • Database-level firewall rules:

      These rules enable clients to access certain (secure) databases within the same logical server. You can create these rules for each database (including the master database) and they are stored in the individual databases. Database-level firewall rules for master and user databases can only be created and managed by using Transact-SQL statements and only after you have configured the first server-level firewall. If you specify an IP address range in the database-level firewall rule that is outside the range specified in the server-level firewall rule, only those clients that have IP addresses in the database-level range can access the database. You can have a maximum of 128 database-level firewall rules for a database. For more information on configuring database-level firewall rules, see the example later in this article and see sp_set_database_firewall_rule (Azure SQL Database).

    Recommendation

    Microsoft recommends using database-level firewall rules whenever possible to enhance security and to make your database more portable. Use server-level firewall rules for administrators and when you have many databases that have the same access requirements and you don’t want to spend time configuring each database individually.

    Answered on January 14, 2019.
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    n addition to IP rules, the firewall also manages virtual network rules. Virtual network rules are based on Virtual Network service endpoints. Virtual network rules might be preferable to IP rules in some cases. To learn more, see Virtual Network service endpoints and rules for Azure SQL Database.

    Answered on February 20, 2019.
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